- Floudas, C A, Pardalos, P M, Adjiman, C S, Esposito, W R, Gumus, Z H, Harding, S T, Klepeis, J L, Meyer, C A, and Schweiger, C A, Handbook of Test Problems in Local and Global Optimization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
- Visweswaran, V, A Decomposition-Based Global Optimization Approach for Solving Bilevel Linear and Quadratic Programs. In Floudas, C A, and Pardalos, P M, Eds, State of the Art in Global Optimization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, p. 139.
- Original source: Global Model of Chapter 9 ex9.2.3.gms from Floudas e.a. Test Problems
Best known point: p1 with value 0.0000